Cao (2020)
A Trial of Lopinavir–Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19
Treatment for COVID-19 (Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir vs. Standard Care)
COVID-19 (clinical improvement)
Hazard ratio: 1.240 (0.900-1.720) Univariate analysis


Open-label Randomized Controlled Trial

Medical records


Adult patients hospitalized with Covid-19 - Evaluated efficacy and safety of oral lopinavir–ritonavir for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Of the 199 patients who underwent randomization, 99 patients were assigned to receive lopinavir–ritonavir and 100 patients to standard care alone.

The median age of patients was 58 years (interquartile range [IQR], 49 to 68 years), and 60.3% of the patients were men. The median interval time between symptom onset and randomization was 13 days (IQR, 11 to 16 days). There were no important between-group differences in demographic characteristics, baseline laboratory test results, distribution of ordinal scale scores, or National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) scores at enrollment. During the trial, systemic glucocorticoids were administered in 33.0% of the patients in the lopinavir–ritonavir group and in 35.7% of those in the standard-care group.


COVID-19 (clinical improvement)


time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first


Treatment for COVID-19

Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir–ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, orally; freely provided by the national health authority) twice daily, plus standard c

Standard Care

Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir

Hazard ratio

1.240 (0.900-1.720)




Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated by means of the Cox proportional-hazards model.

no benefit was observed with lopinavir–ritonavir treatment beyond standard care.