Toraih (2020)
Association of cardiac biomarkers and comorbidities with increased mortality, severity, and cardiac injury in COVID?19 patients: A meta?regression and Decision tree analysis
Chronic kidney disease (Present vs. Not present)
COVID-19 (death)
Odds ratio: 2.750 (1.770-4.280) Univariate analysis

China and overseas


Systematic Reviews


The study included a total of 56 studies (52 retrospective and 4 prospective studies) published from January 24, 2020, to May 7, 2020 were included for qualitative analysis.

Two investigators separately conducted literature screening, followed by data abstraction in a predesigned excel sheet by four investigators (RE, AE, MNA, MEM). The median age of 17,364 COVID-19 patients across 53 studies ranged from 32 to 74 years in patients with a good prognosis and 47 to 77 years in patients with poor outcomes. Pooled estimates revealed significantly higher age in critical/expired cases (SMD = 1.0, 95%CI = 0.72 to 1.31, p <0.001) than non-critical group. The results from 54 articles with a total sample size of 17,702 patients showed that the proportion of males was significantly higher in critical cases (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.36 to 1.69, p <0.001). Evidence of heterogeneity and publication bias were observed for age data (I2 = 97.1%, p <0.001, Egger’s p = 0.041), but not for gender (I2 = 26.5%, p = 0.041, Egger’s p = 0.58).


COVID-19 (death)


Mortality in severe COVID-19 (As per 16 studies)


Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD)

Not present


Odds ratio

2.750 (1.770-4.280)




Pooled analysis

Utilizing a two-arms meta-analysis for 56 articles and 17794 COVID-19 subjects, our findings reveal the association of COVID-19 mortality with high levels of cardiac biomarkers.