Liabeuf (2020)
Association between renin–angiotensin system inhibitors and COVID-19 complications
Concomitant medication (Treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) vs. Not received)
COVID-19 (severe/fatal)
Odds ratio: 1.730 (1.020-2.930) Adjusted model


Retrospective observational study

Medical records


All consecutive hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in a university hospital in Amiens (France) were included in this study.

A total of 499 local patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 231 were not hospitalized [males 33%; median (IQR) age: 44 (32–54)] and 268 were hospitalized [males 58%; median (IQR) age: 73 (61–84)]. Among the hospitalized patients, 116 met the primary outcome (47 died before ICU admission and 69 were admitted to the ICU). The primary study outcome was a composite endpoint: ICU admission or death before ICU admission. The two events comprising the composite endpoint were also evaluated separately as secondary outcomes.


32 Day

COVID-19 (severe/fatal)


composite endpoint: ICU admission or death before ICU admission.


Concomitant medication

Antihypertensive drug. 71 (62%) COVID-19 patients with hypertension.

Not received

Treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs)

Odds ratio

1.730 (1.020-2.930)




Risk was adjusted for the 1) primary endpoint - age, sex, coronary heart disease, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, antihypertensive agent, including beta-blockers, diuretics, renin–angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) and Anti-inflammatory drugs. 2) two secondary endpoints - [ICU admission and death before ICU admission].

Long-term treatment with a RASI was defined as a prescription of an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) alone or combined with another antihypertensive agent.