Bezzio (2020)
Outcomes of COVID-19 in 79 patients with IBD in Italy: an IG-IBD study gutjnl-2020-321411
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (CCI score >1 vs. Not applicable)
COVID-19 (death)
Odds ratio: 16.660 (1.800-153.900) Univariate analysis


Prospective observational cohort study

Medical records


we enrolled 79 consecutive patients with IBD with diagnosis of COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic. This number is relatively small compared with the general population infected by SARS-COV-2 in Italy. The geographic distribution of our IBD population was in line with the general distribution of the confirmed cases in Italy, since 85% of our study population lives in northern Italy.

The patients were in treatment at one of 24 Italian IBD referral units for either CD (n=32) or UC (n=47). Overall, 49 patients had COVID-19 confirmed by a positive nasopharyngeal swab, while 30 cases were confirmed by clinical and radiological signs. The most common COVID-19 symptoms were fever (90%), cough (66%), dysosmia/dysgeusia (24%), arthralgia/myalgia (23%), dyspnoea (19%), diarrhoea (15%) and rhino-pharyngitis (16%). Overall, 36 patients (46%) had COVID-19-related pneumonia, 22 (28%) were hospitalised, 7 (9%) required non-mechanical ventilation, 9 (11%) required continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, 2 (3%) underwent endotracheal intubation and 6 (8%) died. No significant differences between patients with CD and UC were found in terms of concomitant medications: steroids (p=0.13), thiopurines (p=0.52), anti-TNF (p=0.11) and vedolizumab (p=0.71)


19 Day

COVID-19 (death)


COVID-19-related deaths.


Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)

comorbidities (expressed with Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)

Not applicable

CCI score >1

Odds ratio

16.660 (1.800-153.900)




The incidence and prevalence of COVID-19 in the IBD population is not known, sample size was not calculated. Differences between subgroups of patients were tested for significance using Fisher’s exact test. Associations among categorical variables were assessed for significance using the X^2 test or Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression.

The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with IBD in terms of negative outcomes, such as the development of COVID-19-related pneumonia (demonstrated by chest CT or radiography), hospitalisation, respiratory therapy and death. The secondary objective was to investigate possible associations between baseline characteristics of patients with IBD and negative COVID-19 outcomes.