Götzinger (2020)
COVID-19 in children and adolescents in Europe: a multinational, multicentre cohort study
Any comorbidity (Present vs. Not present)
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical)
Odds ratio: 3.270 (1.670-6.420) Adjusted model


Prospective cohort study

Medical records


This multicentre cohort study involved 82 participating health-care institutions across 25 European countries, using a well established research network—the Paediatric Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (ptbnet)—that mainly comprises paediatric infectious diseases specialists and paediatric pulmonologists. 582 individuals with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in the final analyses. 454 (78%) were contributed by tertiary or quaternary health-care institutions, whereas 54 (9%) had been diagnosed in secondary and 74 (13%) in primary health-care settings.

The median age of the study population was 5·0 years (IQR 0·5–12·0), ranging from 3 days to 18 years. Age was non-normally distributed (W=0·8710; p<0·0001), with 170 (29%) participants younger than 12 months. The sex ratio was 1·15 males to every female. The most common source of infection was a parent, considered the index case in 324 (56%) individuals; for 24 (4%) individuals, the most probable index case was a sibling. In the remaining 234 (40%) individuals, the index case was a person outside of the immediate family or unknown. 363 (62%) individuals were admitted to hospital and 48 (8%) required admission to an ICU for additional support, corresponding to 13% of those admitted to hospital. Explored factors associated with need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and initiation of drug treatment for COVID-19 using univariable analysis, and applied multivariable logistic regression with backwards stepwise analysis to further explore those factors significantly associated with ICU admission.


24 Day

COVID-19 in children (severe/critical)


Admitted to ICU. 48 (8%) required admission to an ICU for additional support.


Any comorbidity

145 (25%) had pre-existing medical conditions like Chromosomal abnormality, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic pulmonary disease, Congenital heart disease, Malignancy, Neurological disorders, other.

Not present


Odds ratio

3.270 (1.670-6.420)




Risk adjusted for Age, Sex, Pre-existing medical conditions, signs or symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection at presentation