Yan (2020)
Self-reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in Covid-19.
Vital Signs
Respiratory rate (1 unit increase vs. Not applicable)
COVID-19 (severe/critical)
Odds ratio: 1.340 (0.950-1.880) Adjusted model

United States of America

Retrospective observational study

Medical records


A total of 169 adult patients tested positive for Covid-19 disease between March 3 and April 8, 2020, with available smell and taste data

Adult subjects presenting to the UC San Diego Health System (Jacobs and Hillcrest Medical Centers) with confirmed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive testing for the SARS-CoV-2 viral nucleic acid from nasopharyngeal swabs. A total of 26/128 (20.1%) patients were admitted for management of Covid-19. Patients who were admitted were significantly less likely to report anosmia/hyposmia (26.9% vs 66.7%, p < 0.001) and dysgeusia (23.1% vs 62.7%, p<0.001) than those who were managed outpatient. Beyond the symptoms of anosmia/hyposmia and dysgeusia, age (median 53.5 years [IQR: 40 65] vs 43.0 years [IQR: 34-54], p=0.009), diabetes (30.1% vs 5.9%, p = 0.001) were associated with admission.


COVID-19 (severe/critical)


The primary outcome was hospital admission.

Vital Signs

Respiratory rate

Factors associated with hospital admission - respiratory rate (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07)

Not applicable

1 unit increase

Odds ratio

1.340 (0.950-1.880)




Age, diabetes, anosmia/hyposmia, dyspnea, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, chest radiograph findings

Normosmia is an independent predictor of admission in Covid-19 cases. Smell loss in Covid-19 may associate with a milder clinical course.