COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics ABO blood group [AB blood group vs. Persons with other than AB blood group] Odds ratio: 1.110 (0.920-1.350) § Zhao
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics ABO blood group [B blood group vs. Persons with other than B blood group] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.950-1.230) § Zhao
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics ABO blood group [A blood group vs. Persons with other than A blood group] Odds ratio: 1.280 (1.140-1.440) § Zhao
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics ABO blood group [0 blood group vs. Persons with other than 0 blood group] Odds ratio: 0.680 (0.600-0.770) § Zhao
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.900 (0.900-3.900) Tian
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.400 (0.900-2.200) Tian
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.800 (0.500-1.200) Tian
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Stroke [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.900 (0.900-3.800) § Tian
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Stroke [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.900 (1.400-5.800) Tian
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Renal failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.300 (0.900-6.000) Tian
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.040 (1.600-10.200) Gao
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.080 (1.060-1.110) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.040-1.080) Zhou
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.260 (1.660-6.400) Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.240 (1.120-4.500) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.090 (0.570-2.080) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Alcohol consumption [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.880 (0.800-10.380) Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.130 (1.330-7.350) Zhou
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.860 (1.060-3.260) § Zhou
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.490 (0.920-2.440) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.930 (2.660-2.900) Nie
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.360 (1.220-15.640) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.250 (1.250-14.500) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.450 (0.930-12.880) Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.630 (1.030-6.700) Nie
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.450 (0.590-3.600) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.770 (0.710-10.880) Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.560 (0.500-4.860) Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.930 (1.300-11.900) Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.650 (0.900-3.000) Xie
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.200 (1.380-3.520) Xie
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.740 (0.470-1.160) Xie
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.930 (0.260-3.270) Xie
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.420 (0.620-3.250) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.920 (1.190-3.100) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.290 (2.150-12.980) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.010 (1.270-3.170) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 1.960 (1.240-3.110) Li
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.010-1.120) § Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.050 (1.020-1.070) Luo
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.080 (1.040-1.130) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.300 (1.640-42.010) Ye
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.500 (1.600-7.640) Guan
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.370 (1.590-7.110) Luo
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.898 (1.275-6.587) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.560 (0.210-1.530) Lu
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.170 (0.390-3.470) Luo
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.772 (4.173-7.982) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.848 (2.232-3.636) CDC
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.740 (1.570-8.890) Luo
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