COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 7.100 (2.040-24.070) Chen
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.910 (0.490-1.680) Fu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.270 (0.870-1.870) Qin
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.640 (0.840-3.230) Zhao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.220 (0.660-2.250) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.560 (0.450-5.410) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.880 (0.290-2.680) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.420 (1.660-7.020) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.230 (1.190-4.180) Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.510 (0.890-2.550) Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.710-1.370) Guan
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.290-2.680) Xingwei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.640 (0.640-4.210) Cao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.480-2.110) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.190 (0.760-1.870) Lu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.430-1.920) Liu
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 2.440 (1.530-3.870) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.880 (0.290-2.280) Xingwei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.700-1.360) Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.500 (0.580-3.880) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Neurological disorder [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.273 (1.015-5.089) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.600 (1.150-11.260) Ling
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.770 (0.790-3.960) Deng
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Stroke [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.840 (0.710-11.280) Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.570 (1.310-9.780) Ling
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.060 (0.610-6.930) Tabata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.060 (2.160-4.360) CDC
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.630 (0.650-4.080) Luo
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.400 (0.620-3.180) Luo
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.810 (0.440-1.480) Fu
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.230 (0.650-7.630) Zhao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.600 (1.450-4.660) Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.500 (0.970-2.360) Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.910 (1.270-2.860) Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.420 (1.880-6.220) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.360 (1.460-3.830) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.460 (1.760-3.440) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.930 (1.340-6.410) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.220 (1.490-6.970) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.020 (2.190-16.510) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.560 (1.330-9.540) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.880 (1.400-2.040) Alqahtani
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.690 (2.490-13.000) Lippi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.320 (2.610-10.850) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.420 (2.440-16.900) Jain
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.200 (2.260-4.530) Matsushita
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.490 (1.820-3.400) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.120 (1.000-9.750) Jain
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.210 (0.880-5.570) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.970 (3.760-6.580) Matsushita
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