COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.760 (1.390-5.450) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.700 (1.520-4.800) Jain
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.870 (2.090-3.930) Matsushita
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.060 (1.610-2.620) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.970 (1.400-2.770) Jain
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.030 (1.540-2.680) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.730 (1.500-2.010) Matsushita
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.350 (1.200-1.520) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.150 (0.890-1.480) Jain
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.380 (0.070-6.690) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.770 (0.780-4.020) Matsushita
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.450 (1.030-2.040) Alqahtani
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.400 (0.980-2.000) Vardavas
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.730 (1.150-2.630) Ma
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.670 (1.910-3.740) Chen
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.360 (1.150-4.830) Jin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.850 (1.680-4.840) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.280-2.810) Mao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.300 (1.760-3.000) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.520 (0.700-3.300) Mao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.690 (0.410-6.920) Lippi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.570 (1.460-14.280) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.580 (1.970-10.660) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.760 (1.030-7.350) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.540 (3.940-28.170) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.320 (1.670-6.180) Mao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.890 (2.190-10.870) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.090 (2.260-11.480) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.370 (1.410-8.030) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.930 (1.110-3.370) Mao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 14.460 (7.030-29.750) Qi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.670-1.910) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.510 (0.290-0.890) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.830-1.580) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.550-1.410) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.310 (0.730-2.340) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.950 (0.680-1.330) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.740-1.330) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.380 (1.030-1.850) Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (1.010-1.170) § Xiaochun
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.480 (1.140-5.400) Xiaochun
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.050 (1.060-1.080) Xiaochun
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.020-1.090) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.480 (0.820-7.460) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.300 (0.470-3.590) Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 13.670 (3.140-59.530) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 16.610 (2.290-120.580) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.780 (2.460-31.260) Cao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.640 (1.480-8.960) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.830 (0.650-5.160) Cao
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