COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. Non smoking] Odds ratio: 1.910 (1.420-2.590) Patanavanich
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding - Chest CT scan [subsegmental areas of consolidation vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.202 (0.062-0.659) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding - Chest CT scan [Bilateral patchy areas of GGO vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 11.628 (2.028-66.667) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.993 (0.986-1.000) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings AST [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.979 (0.957-1.002) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings PT [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.595 (1.165-2.183) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Myalgia/Arthralgia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.546 (0.153-1.953) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.000 (0.900-111.111) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Sputum [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.104 (0.019-0.578) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Fatigue [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.547 (1.534-47.619) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications APACHE II score [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.738-1.073) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.442 (0.219-0.890) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.585 (0.208-12.048) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.101 (1.022-1.186) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 11.080 (2.590-47.320) Aggarwal
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.140 (2.320-4.240) Aggarwal
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.270 (1.670-6.420) § Götzinger
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Symptoms Lower respiratory tract infection [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.460 (5.160-21.230) § Götzinger
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.120 (1.060-4.210) § Götzinger
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>1 month vs. <=1 month] Odds ratio: 5.060 (1.720-14.870) Götzinger
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.900-1.000) Götzinger
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [missing vs. 0-1.1] Hazard ratio: 1.480 (0.560-3.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [>2 vs. 0-1.1] Hazard ratio: 1.490 (1.080-2.040) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [>1.1-2 vs. 0-1.1] Hazard ratio: 1.360 (1.110-1.680) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [missing vs. >1.2] Hazard ratio: 2.160 (1.090-4.270) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [<0.5 vs. >1.2] Hazard ratio: 1.380 (1.050-1.810) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [0.5-0.8 vs. >1.2] Hazard ratio: 1.040 (0.840-1.280) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [0.8-1.2 vs. >1.2] Hazard ratio: 0.890 (0.700-1.140) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [missing vs. >92] Hazard ratio: 1.030 (0.620-1.710) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [<88 vs. >92] Hazard ratio: 2.000 (1.610-2.480) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [88-92 vs. >92] Hazard ratio: 1.460 (1.180-1.790) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Body temperature [>39 vs. <38] Hazard ratio: 1.040 (0.790-1.370) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Body temperature [38-39 vs. <38] Hazard ratio: 1.170 (0.960-1.430) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.290 (1.030-1.620) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.920 (0.730-1.160) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Asthma or COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.030 (0.830-1.290) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (0.850-1.210) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.980 (0.780-1.230) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hyperlipidaemia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.980 (0.820-1.170) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.540 (1.230-1.930) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (0.900-1.350) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [CT-SS>14 vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.946 (1.095-3.459) § Xu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Complications Lymphopenia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.014 (1.356-6.697) § Xu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Complications Leukocytosis [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 6.349 (3.330-12.108) § Xu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities >=2 comorbidities [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.778 (2.451-9.315) § Xu
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [CT-SS>14 vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.915 (1.376-6.177) § Xu
COVID-19 (death) Complications Lymphopenia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.579 (1.334-15.715) § Xu
COVID-19 (death) Complications Leukocytosis [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 9.639 (4.572-20.321) § Xu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>60 years vs. <=60 years] Hazard ratio: 2.231 (1.124-4.427) § Xu
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities >=2 comorbidities [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 6.734 (3.239-14.003) § Xu
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