COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 8.860 (2.720-28.890) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 8.210 (1.920-35.050) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings HS-cTnI [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 43.240 (9.920-188.490) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 5.300 (2.190-12.830) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings AST [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.000 (2.460-6.520) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings WBC [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.300 (0.170-0.510) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Shortness of breath [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.160 (3.100-5.530) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Nausea/vomiting [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.320 (0.720-2.420) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Diarrhea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.410 (0.820-2.430) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Fatigue [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.130 (0.880-1.440) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.840-1.540) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Cough [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.850-1.380) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Myalgia/Arthralgia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.770 (0.580-1.040) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Headache [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.820 (0.500-1.360) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Fever [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.560 (0.380-0.820) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.720 (1.600-4.640) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.600 (0.810-3.180) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.150 (2.510-10.570) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.190 (3.250-8.290) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.680 (2.680-5.030) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.040 (1.320-3.150) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.770 (1.430-2.190) Zheng
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Odds ratio: 6.010 (3.950-9.160) Zheng
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [High dosage chloroquine diphosphate vs. Low dosage chloroquine diphosphate] Odds ratio: 2.800 (0.900-8.500) § Borba
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [High dosage chloroquine diphosphate vs. Low dosage chloroquine diphosphate] Odds ratio: 3.600 (1.200-10.600) Borba
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir vs. Standard Care] Hazard ratio: 1.240 (0.900-1.720) Cao
Virus clearance Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.456 (0.064-3.275) § Cai
Virus clearance Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.000 (0.971-1.029) § Cai
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with favipiravir vs. Treated with lopinavir/ritonavir] Hazard ratio: 3.434 (1.162-10.148) § Cai
Virus clearance Status Time from onset to treatment [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.217 (0.996-1.486) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings CD8 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.997 (0.993-1.002) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings T lymphocyte [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.002 (1.000-1.005) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 2.236 (0.617-8.105) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Platelet count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.011 (0.998-1.024) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Hemoglobin [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.002 (0.969-1.036) § Cai
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.421 (0.129-1.368) § Cai
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings NK-cell [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.980-0.990) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings B-cell [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.980-0.990) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CD8 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.970-0.990) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CD4 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.980-0.990) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CD3 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.980-0.990) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 11.610 (4.670-30.900) Xu
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.994 (0.992-0.997) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.400 (1.500-31.200) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.300 (2.300-18.800) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.300 (1.000-1.800) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.100 (1.100-9.400) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>60 years vs. <=60 years] Odds ratio: 4.800 (1.500-16.200) § Ji
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Body aches [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.100 (1.400-7.000) § Roland
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Sore throat [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.300 (0.200-0.600) § Roland
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