COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1% increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.930-0.990) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.760 (1.250-3.930) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-2R [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (1.000-1.010) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.000-1.050) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings TNF alpha [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.220 (1.010-1.470) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Antitumour treatment [Treated with Chemotherapy or Radiotherapy vs. Surgery] Odds ratio: 1.280 (0.850-1.940) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Tumour stage [Stage IV (advanced tumour stage) vs. Stage I, II or III] Odds ratio: 2.600 (1.050-6.430) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics ECOG performance status [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.800 (1.960-3.990) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (1.000-1.070) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Anti-inflammatory drugs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 2.930 (0.680-12.570) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASIs) vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.730 (1.020-2.930) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with diuretics vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.350 (0.710-2.560) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with beta-blockers vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.180 (0.640-2.190) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.600 (0.680-3.780) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.220 (0.630-1.730) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.320 (1.040-5.190) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.540 (0.910-2.610) § Liabeuf
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.990-1.020) § Liabeuf
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 10.310 (2.630-40.500) Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.800 (0.370-1.720) Li
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.670 (0.440-6.320) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.860 (0.330-2.240) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.880 (0.300-2.630) Li
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 13.570 (2.360-77.950) Li
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.340 (0.980-1.830) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.340 (0.980-1.830) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 2.150 (1.070-4.320) Li
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 11.390 (3.910-33.180) Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.650 (0.290-1.460) Li
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.420 (0.900-2.240) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.200 (0.800-1.810) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.850 (0.910-3.770) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.300-3.190) Li
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with convalescent plasma vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.400 (0.790-2.490) Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Palliative chemotherapy vs. No treatment] Odds ratio: 1.050 (0.630-1.760) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Palliative chemotherapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.480 (0.930-2.360) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Palliative first-line chemotherapy vs. Treated with Second-line (other line) chemotherapy] Odds ratio: 0.840 (0.360-1.980) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Non-palliative chemotherapy vs. Treated with Palliative chemotherapy] Odds ratio: 0.400 (0.170-0.960) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Targeted therapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.830 (0.450-1.540) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Radiotherapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.650 (0.360-1.180) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Immunotherapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.590 (0.270-1.270) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Hormone therapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.490-1.680) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Chemotherapy vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.180 (0.810-1.720) § Lee
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Unknown vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Hazard ratio: 1.970 (1.230-3.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>40kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Hazard ratio: 1.450 (0.990-2.130) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-39kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Hazard ratio: 1.080 (0.870-1.360) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (0.820-1.250) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Unknown vs. None] Hazard ratio: 1.500 (1.210-1.860) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. None] Hazard ratio: 0.920 (0.620-1.380) § Petrilli
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