COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [60-69 years vs. 50-59 years] Hazard ratio: 2.090 (1.840-2.380) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [40-49 years vs. 50-59 years] Hazard ratio: 0.310 (0.250-0.390) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with aspirin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.250 (0.660-2.390) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with fibrates vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.040 (0.001-29.260) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Statins vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 2.500 (1.480-4.210) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with insulin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 2.950 (1.650-5.260) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with DPP.4 inhibitor vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 6.180 (2.500-15.270) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with thiazolidinediones vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.350 (0.110-1.130) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with insulin secretagogues vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.290 (0.720-2.290) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with biguanides vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.020 (0.610-1.690) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with glycosidase inhibitors vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.180 (0.100-0.320) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with beta-blockers vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.790 (0.450-1.400) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with diuretics vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.320 (0.190-0.570) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with calcium channel blocker vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.670 (1.220-2.290) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.240 (0.170-0.340) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.650 (0.260-1.570) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Glucocorticoids vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.200 (0.490-2.940) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.540-1.810) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Comorbidities Cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.140 (1.250-3.660) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.030 (0.820-1.290) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.540 (1.150-2.060) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Comorbidities HBV [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.260 (0.890-1.790) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.760 (0.570-1.010) § Yan
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [18-39 years vs. 50-59 years] Hazard ratio: 0.070 (0.050-0.100) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Immunocompromised [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.106 (1.085-4.087) § Borghesi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.081 (1.046-1.118) § Borghesi
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [1 unit increase in Brixia score vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.327 (1.200-1.472) § Borghesi
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.870 (0.730-1.040) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Intervention Vasoactive medication [Administered vs. Not administered] Odds ratio: 4.530 (2.880-7.130) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Intervention Invasive mechanical ventilation [Used vs. Not used] Odds ratio: 10.700 (6.810-16.700) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.090 (0.820-1.450) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (>=30 kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.110 (0.940-1.310) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.480 (1.220-1.800) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.250 (1.040-1.500) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.760 (1.490-2.070) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Other Level of hospital care [Tertiary hospital vs. Not tertiary hospital] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.770-1.060) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Unknown vs. White] Odds ratio: 0.740 (0.500-1.110) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. White] Odds ratio: 0.840 (0.690-1.030) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.230 (1.010-1.500) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. White] Odds ratio: 0.830 (0.610-1.120) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.970-1.330) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (Acute Kidney Injury) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.030-1.040) § Hirsch
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Cardiac troponin [missing vs. <0.1] Odds ratio: 0.840 (0.510-1.400) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Cardiac troponin [>1 vs. <0.1] Odds ratio: 4.780 (2.100-10.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Cardiac troponin [0.1-1 vs. <0.1] Odds ratio: 2.090 (1.510-2.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [missing vs. 0-0.5] Odds ratio: 0.750 (0.440-1.300) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [>0.5 vs. 0-0.5] Odds ratio: 1.540 (1.180-2.000) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum ferritin [missing vs. 0-300] Odds ratio: 0.750 (0.390-1.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum ferritin [>2500 vs. 0-300] Odds ratio: 1.400 (0.940-2.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum ferritin [>1000-2500 vs. 0-300] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.830-1.600) § Petrilli
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