COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications Thrombocytopenia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.130 (1.810-14.580) Lippi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Lesion present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.460 (0.620-31.900) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD4 [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.550 (0.330-0.920) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings eGFR [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.890-1.020) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lactate [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.230 (0.880-1.700) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings AST [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.960-1.030) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ALT [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.030) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Albumin [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.950 (0.780-1.160) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ESR [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.990-1.020) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.990-1.030) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 4.050 (0.890-18.500) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.070 (0.790-1.450) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [Fever present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.520 (0.340-6.850) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.830 (0.500-6.750) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.380 (0.770-14.900) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.000-1.120) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.520 (0.740-3.100) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [Abnormal at syptom onset vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.160 (0.540-2.470) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.220 (0.600-2.500) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal at syptom onset vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.590 (0.290-1.230) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac injury [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.410 (1.620-7.160) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac injury [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.260 (1.920-9.490) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute respiratory distress syndrome [Present at admission vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 7.110 (3.310-15.250) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute respiratory distress syndrome [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 7.890 (3.730-16.660) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.820 (0.180-3.650) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.750 (0.430-7.160) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Renal failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.660 (0.290-1.460) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Renal failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (0.490-2.440) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.390 (0.040-3.680) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.370 (0.040-3.500) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.750 (0.380-1.500) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.790 (0.410-1.520) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.710 (0.710-4.090) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.120 (0.460-2.700) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.400 (0.650-3.030) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.020 (0.990-1.040) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.510 (0.700-3.300) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.020 (0.990-1.050) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with heparin (patients with D-dimer >8 ULN) vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.410 (0.210-0.820) Tang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with heparin (patients with D-dimer >6 ULN) vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.440 (0.230-0.870) Tang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with heparin (patients with SIC score >=4) vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.370 (0.150-0.900) Tang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with heparin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.650 (0.930-2.920) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.860 (0.540-1.380) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Odds ratio: 0.680 (0.430-1.080) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.030-1.090) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Platelet count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.990-1.000) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings PT [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.110 (1.010-1.220) § Tang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.010-1.060) § Tang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Patchy consolidation on CT on admission vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 5.440 (1.500-19.750) § Zhang
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