COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. None] Hazard ratio: 1.070 (0.880-1.310) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Unknown vs. Non-Hispanic White] Hazard ratio: 1.230 (0.820-1.830) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. Non-Hispanic White] Hazard ratio: 1.170 (0.860-1.600) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White] Hazard ratio: 1.210 (0.980-1.490) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. Non-Hispanic White] Hazard ratio: 1.260 (0.910-1.750) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Non-Hispanic Black vs. Non-Hispanic White] Hazard ratio: 0.710 (0.530-0.940) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.460 (0.110-1.790) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.750 (0.200-2.790) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.250 (0.590-2.680) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 2.110 (0.960-4.620) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.310 (0.800-2.150) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.830 (1.160-2.890) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.120 (0.710-1.760) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.270 (0.810-2.000) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.090 (0.720-1.660) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.190 (0.780-1.820) § Magagnoli
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Azithromycin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 5.490 (1.130-26.660) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 6.670 (2.000-22.220) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Interferon vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.794 (0.285-2.210) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Oseltamivir vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.974 (0.610-1.560) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.620 (0.097-3.970) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Immunoglobulin vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.410 (1.900-6.140) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Glucocorticoids vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 3.520 (2.510-4.930) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [treated with Antibiotics vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 3.360 (1.660-6.770) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Antiviral drug vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.985 (0.670-1.450) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Sepsis [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 220.000 (30.380-1593.170) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Shock [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 36.900 (11.050-123.500) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Coagulopathy [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.860 (2.830-12.130) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.150 (2.410-7.150) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Arrhythmia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.400 (1.670-6.940) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Liver injury [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.930 (1.010-8.460) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 15.700 (8.240-30.200) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Pneumonia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.660 (2.040-6.570) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute respiratory distress syndrome [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 34.800 (13.600-89.200) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.970 (1.410-2.760) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.750 (1.770-4.280) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.490 (2.720-7.400) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.080 (2.360-4.030) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.420 (2.650-4.420) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.880 (1.590-2.240) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.220 (1.750-2.810) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Chest pain/tightness [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.930 (1.140-3.280) Toraih
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.500 (1.340-1.690) Toraih
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.650 (0.510-0.820) § Horby
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.800 (0.700-0.920) § Horby
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 1.220 (0.930-1.610) § Horby
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.910 (0.820-1.010) § Horby
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.760 (0.610-0.960) § Horby
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.910 (0.820-1.000) § Horby
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 1.110 (1.040-1.190) § Horby
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