COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.690-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.240 (0.820-1.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Non-Hispanic Black vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 0.570 (0.410-0.800) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.060 (0.850-1.300) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 2.320 (1.570-3.400) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [65-74 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 1.730 (1.190-2.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [55-64 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 1.320 (0.930-1.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [45-54 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 0.780 (0.540-1.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 2.040 (1.690-2.470) Pranata
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 2.210 (1.740-2.810) Pranata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.880 (0.650-1.190) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.600 (1.890-3.610) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Asthma or COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.880-1.330) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.240 (1.840-2.730) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.780 (1.490-2.120) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hyperlipidaemia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.620 (0.520-0.740) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.430 (2.590-8.040) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.810-1.440) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.210 (0.280-5.150) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.080 (0.250-4.700) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.060 (0.350-3.200) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.460 (0.160-1.320) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.770 (0.900-8.540) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.870 (0.880-4.000) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.100 (1.140-8.440) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 2.100 (0.950-4.650) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=70 years vs. <70 years] Hazard ratio: 5.870 (1.880-18.330) § Shi
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=70 years vs. <70 years] Hazard ratio: 2.390 (1.030-5.560) § Shi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Unknown vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 0.470 (0.310-0.690) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>40kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 2.450 (1.780-3.360) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-39kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.800 (1.470-2.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.300 (1.070-1.570) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Unknown vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 1.430 (1.160-1.750) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 0.590 (0.430-0.810) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 0.690 (0.560-0.850) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.600 (1.210-2.110) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Hispanic vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.630 (1.350-1.970) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.290 (0.970-1.720) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Non-Hispanic Black vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 0.810 (0.650-1.010) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.760 (2.390-3.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 37.870 (26.100-56.030) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [65-74 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 8.700 (6.770-11.220) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [55-64 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 3.670 (3.010-4.480) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [45-54 years vs. 19-44 years] Odds ratio: 2.140 (1.760-2.590) § Petrilli
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.310 (1.890-3.020) Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Heart-fatty acid binding protein [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 6.810 (5.230-8.400) Yin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [1mm increase in distance from lesion to pleurae in lower lung vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.910 (0.830-1.000) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [1mm increase in distance from lesion to pleurae in upper lung vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.930-1.080) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [< -600 Hounsfield unit (%) vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.000 (1.000-1.010) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [-600 ~ -400 Hounsfield unit (%) vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.980-1.010) § Yu
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