COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics BMI for Men [Obesity (>=28 kg/m2) vs. Normal (18.5–23.9 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 5.660 (1.800-17.750) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics BMI for Men [Overweight (24–27.9 kg/m2) vs. Normal (18.5–23.9 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.980 (0.780-5.000) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (>=28 kg/m2) vs. Normal (18.5–23.9 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 3.400 (1.400-8.260) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (24–27.9 kg/m2) vs. Normal (18.5–23.9 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.840 (0.990-3.430) § Cai
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.397 (1.195-9.565) § Hou
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.093 (0.025-0.341) § Hou
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Patient characteristics Age [>=60 years vs. <60 years] Odds ratio: 0.104 (0.024-0.449) § Hou
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with remdesivir vs. Placebo] Hazard ratio: 0.700 (0.470-1.040) § Beigel
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (1.009-1.011) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.063 (1.060-1.067) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Hazard ratio: 0.825 (0.793-0.858) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.344 (1.276-1.415) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Hispanic vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.495 (1.400-1.597) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. White] Hazard ratio: 0.717 (0.668-0.769) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.134 (1.082-1.188) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Congestive heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.756 (1.609-1.915) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Arrhythmia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.626 (1.504-1.758) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.206 (1.151-1.264) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.302 (1.252-1.355) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hyperlipidaemia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.125 (1.081-1.171) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.190 (1.093-1.294) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.268 (1.201-1.340) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Immunosuppressed [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.081 (0.985-1.187) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.566 (0.514-0.624) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Statins vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.793 (0.736-0.855) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.989 (0.914-1.071) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Complications Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.758 (0.726-0.792) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.664 (1.587-1.746) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with chloroquine alone vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.365 (1.218-1.531) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine alone vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.335 (1.223-1.457) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with chloroquine and macrolide vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.368 (1.273-1.469) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine and macrolide vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.447 (1.368-1.531) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.994 (0.991-0.997) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.985 (0.976-0.994) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.966 (0.861-1.082) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black vs. White] Hazard ratio: 0.980 (0.822-1.168) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Hispanic vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.130 (0.910-1.402) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. White] Hazard ratio: 0.943 (0.792-1.123) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.830 (1.613-2.076) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Congestive heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.914 (3.283-4.665) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Arrhythmia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.119 (3.525-4.812) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.848 (0.724-0.993) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.941 (0.831-1.065) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Hyperlipidaemia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.059 (0.938-1.195) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.585 (1.256-2.001) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.950 (0.796-1.133) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Comorbidities Immunosuppressed [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.815 (0.604-1.101) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.044 (0.852-1.279) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Statins vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.973 (0.797-1.187) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.043 (0.831-1.307) § Mehra
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