COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.008 (0.898-1.130) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Complications Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.134 (0.984-1.308) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.849 (0.710-1.016) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with chloroquine alone vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 3.561 (2.760-4.596) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine alone vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 2.369 (1.935-2.900) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with chloroquine and macrolide vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 4.011 (3.344-4.812) § Mehra
COVID-19 (ventricular arrhythmias) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine and macrolide vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 5.106 (4.357-5.983) § Mehra
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Immunocompromised [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.780-1.310) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.780-1.310) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.720-1.500) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.210 (0.920-1.600) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.030 (0.780-1.360) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.910 (1.310-2.780) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.690-1.140) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>35kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.280 (0.780-2.100) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-35kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.410 (1.040-1.910) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.260 (0.990-1.610) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 0.870 (0.690-1.100) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 0.490 (0.340-0.710) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Location [Urban vs. Rural] Odds ratio: 4.590 (3.570-5.900) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Household size [>=9 vs. 1] Odds ratio: 1.290 (0.800-2.070) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Household size [5-8 vs. 1] Odds ratio: 0.860 (0.570-1.310) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Household size [2-4 vs. 1] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.770-1.230) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Socioeconomic deprivation level [1 and 2 (most deprived) vs. 5 (least deprived)] Odds ratio: 2.030 (1.510-2.710) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Socioeconomic deprivation level [3 vs. 5 (least deprived)] Odds ratio: 2.350 (1.780-3.110) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Socioeconomic deprivation level [4 vs. 5 (least deprived)] Odds ratio: 1.510 (1.130-2.030) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.710 (0.970-3.010) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black vs. White] Odds ratio: 4.750 (2.650-8.510) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.460 (0.940-2.290) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.550 (1.270-1.890) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. 0-17 years] Odds ratio: 5.230 (3.000-9.090) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [65–74 years vs. 0-17 years] Odds ratio: 4.410 (2.520-7.690) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [40–64 years vs. 0-17 years] Odds ratio: 5.360 (3.280-8.760) § Lusignan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [18–39 years vs. 0-17 years] Odds ratio: 2.830 (1.690-4.740) § Lusignan
COVID-19 (death) Status Time from symptom onset to hospital admission [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (0.960-1.050) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (1.010-1.190) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.110 (1.020-1.200) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.310 (0.810-2.100) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.940 (1.480-5.840) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic cardiac disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.760 (1.080-2.860) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.580 (0.890-2.810) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 1.130 (0.710-1.810) § Cummings
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [10 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.310 (1.090-1.570) § Cummings
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.322 (0.201-8.693) § Cai
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Symptoms Fever [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.622 (1.054-12.442) § Cai
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with favipiravir vs. Treated with lopinavir/ritonavir] Odds ratio: 3.190 (1.041-9.780) § Cai
COVID-19 (clinical improvement) Patient characteristics Age [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.981 (0.947-1.016) § Cai
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Symptoms Digestive symptoms [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.570 (1.070-6.160) Lu
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Symptoms Cough and dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.290 (1.050-5.030) Lu
COVID-19 in children (severe/critical) Symptoms Fever [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.140 (2.190-12.010) Lu
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