COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with glycosidase inhibitors vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.950 (0.550-6.920) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with diuretics vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.610 (0.180-2.050) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with calcium channel blocker vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.520 (0.240-1.130) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.770 (0.360-1.630) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.230 (0.190-7.930) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Glucocorticoids vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 7.560 (1.170-48.930) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.940 (0.500-7.520) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.940 (0.310-2.830) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.350 (1.470-3.760) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.200 (0.640-2.240) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.560-2.080) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.830 (0.320-2.180) § Yan
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDL [Lowered vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 21.720 (1.400-337.540) Fan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDL [Lowered vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.480 (1.550-12.920) Fan
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac injury [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 3.850 (2.130-6.960) Li
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 96.500 (4.600-2017.600) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Complications Lymphopenia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 17.300 (1.100-261.800) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 52.600 (3.600-776.400) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 24.800 (1.800-342.100) § Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings hs-CRP [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings eGFR [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.920-1.160) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.960-1.130) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings AST [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.990-1.090) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings ALT [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.940-1.020) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.070 (0.950-1.220) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Hs-TnI [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.000-1.070) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.730-1.270) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.999-1.001) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.999-1.001) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.010 (0.001-0.140) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.280 (1.000-1.640) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.240 (0.450-23.570) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.820 (0.240-2.750) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Consciousness disorders [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.380 (0.080-24.000) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Respiratory rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.130 (0.940-1.350) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Heart rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.960-1.040) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.860-1.090) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Odds ratio: 0.320 (0.040-2.410) § Sun
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.120 (1.010-1.250) § Sun
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Sore throat [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.230 (0.110-0.500) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Nausea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.710 (1.070-6.830) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Fever [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.670 (0.770-3.600) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Fatigue [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.230 (0.500-3.040) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Myalgia/Arthralgia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.530 (0.710-3.330) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Anosmia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.920 (5.080-23.530) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Symptoms Ageusia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.230 (4.740-22.090) § Yan
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Treatment history [Treated with beta-blockers vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.910-1.080) § Mancia
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Treatment history [Treated with diuretics vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.060 (0.960-1.170) § Mancia
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Treatment history [Treated with calcium channel blocker vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.030 (0.950-1.120) § Mancia
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Treatment history [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.950 (0.870-1.070) § Mancia
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