COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (any condition) Treatment Treatment history [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.870-1.070) § Mancia
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Chest Radiograph - Pulmonary infiltrates and/or Pleural effusions [Positive vs. Negative] Odds ratio: 8.010 (1.120-57.490) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Respiratory rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.340 (0.950-1.880) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Heart rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.900-1.040) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [Fever present vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.400 (0.950-6.050) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.490 (0.080-3.130) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Anosmia/Hyposmia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.090 (0.010-0.740) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.230 (0.340-52.520) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.900-1.040) § Yan
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Chinese female vs. White] Odds ratio: 0.750 (0.470-1.220) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Chinese male vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.180 (0.850-1.630) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Indian male vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.320 (1.150-1.530) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Indian female vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.430 (1.200-1.710) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Bangladeshi/Pakistani female vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.610 (1.310-1.970) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Bangladeshi/Pakistani male vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.810 (1.550-2.110) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black female vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.890 (1.630-2.200) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black male vs. White] Odds ratio: 1.930 (1.700-2.180) § Office for National Statistics
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications Hypoxia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 18.200 (9.362-35.380) Lu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Conjunctivitis [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.390 (1.125-10.212) Loffredo
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.033 (1.029-1.037) § Liu
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.158 (1.028-1.305) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Without chronic disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.144 (0.115-0.181) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 3.770 (2.537-5.602) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Pregnancy [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.521 (0.191-1.421) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.925 (5.510-8.705) CDC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 3.050 (1.180-7.840) Matsushita
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.750 (1.120-2.730) § Matsushita
COVID-19 (any condition) Other Average daily temperature [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.810 (0.710-0.910) § Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings NLR [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.886 (2.064-4.860) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Derived NLR ratio [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.901 (0.841-4.300) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.018 (0.988-1.749) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.206 (0.898-2.045) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings WBC [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.118 (0.888-1.543) § Yang
COVID-19 (any condition) Patient characteristics Proportion of Black residents [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.220 (1.090-1.400) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.330 (0.770-7.040) Aggarwal
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.550 (1.180-5.510) Aggarwal
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Statins vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.350 (0.240-0.520) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.230 (0.870-1.740) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.330 (0.200-0.540) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.790 (1.290-2.470) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.960 (2.000-4.400) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Complications Arrhythmia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.950 (1.330-2.860) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.480 (1.620-3.790) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.700 (2.080-3.510) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Odds ratio: 0.790 (0.650-0.950) § Mehra
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Odds ratio: 1.930 (1.600-2.410) § Mehra
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Status Hospital lenght of stay [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Status Time from symptom onset to hospital admission [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.970-1.060) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.440 (1.110-1.890) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Respiratory rate [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.230 (1.080-1.390) § Yan
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