COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.400 (0.040-3.780) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 6.280 (0.890-44.240) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Ulcerative colitis [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.950 (0.310-27.730) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Inflammatory bowel disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.450 (1.260-56.560) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) [CCI score >1 vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 16.660 (1.800-153.900) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Odds ratio: 19.600 (2.950-130.600) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Vedolizumab vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.530 (0.160-1.730) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.180 (0.470-2.970) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Thiopurines vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.210 (0.220-6.400) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 4.940 (0.950-25.550) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Comorbidities Inflammatory bowel disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.250 (2.110-49.730) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Comorbidities Ulcerative colitis [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.720 (1.060-6.990) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Comorbidities Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) [CCI score >1 vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.910 (1.060-9.210) Bezzio
COVID-19 (Pneumonia) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Odds ratio: 5.870 (1.150-29.660) Bezzio
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Pleural effusion vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.357 (0.303-6.083) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Calcification vs. Negative] Odds ratio: 1.714 (0.375-7.836) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Emphysema present vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 21.000 (1.909-230.962) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [GGO with clear margin vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.183-5.460) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Consolidation on chest CT vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.643 (0.158-2.613) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Diarrhoea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.683 (0.074-6.253) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Nausea/vomiting [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.278 (0.127-12.806) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Loss of appetite [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.722 (0.181-2.875) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Fatigue [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.483 (0.121-1.927) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.783 (0.196-3.117) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.786 (0.202-3.060) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Cough [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.263 (0.235-6.777) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Fever [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.976 (0.221-17.623) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.000 (1.253-28.742) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Stroke [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.875 (0.449-18.395) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Peptic ulcer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.583 (0.065-5.265) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.875 (0.449-18.395) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.519 (0.336-6.871) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.185 (0.295-4.762) Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.120 (1.030-1.210) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings PT [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.250 (1.070-1.480) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings APTT [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.120 (1.050-1.180) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Platelet count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.990-1.000) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings HS-cTnI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Myoglobin (MYO) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.030) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.650 (1.030-2.780) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Albumin/globulin ratio [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.120 (0.020-0.770) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Albumin [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.920 (0.870-0.980) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (1.000-1.000) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Monocytes [1% increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.880 (0.790-0.980) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1% increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.060 (1.030-1.090) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Leucocyte count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.110 (1.010-1.220) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD3-CD16+CD56+ natural killer cells [1% increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.850 (0.720-0.990) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD4+ T cells [1% increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.840 (0.710-0.980) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD3-CD19+ B-cell count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.960-1.000) § Tian
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.560 (0.310-1.000) § Tian
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