COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Total bilirubin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.250 (0.940-5.350) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings AST [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.200 (1.100-6.730) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 8.720 (3.420-22.280) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.960 (1.420-11.000) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.100 (1.070-8.940) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.280 (1.140-16.130) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. <65 years] Hazard ratio: 7.860 (2.440-25.350) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [65-74 years vs. <65 years] Hazard ratio: 3.430 (1.240-9.500) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Ribavirin received vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.420 (0.670-3.030) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Arbidol received vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.500 (0.300-0.840) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.350 (0.150-0.830) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Low-dose glucocorticoid received (<1mg/kg) vs. High-dose glucocorticoid received (>=1mg/kg)] Hazard ratio: 0.530 (0.310-0.900) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Glucocorticoid not received vs. High-dose glucocorticoid received (>=1mg/kg)] Hazard ratio: 0.410 (0.190-0.860) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte time [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.730 (0.620-0.860) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Complications Multi-organ dysfunction [Present vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.270 (1.040-1.570) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDH [250–445U/L vs. >=445U/L] Hazard ratio: 0.290 (0.160-0.520) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDH [<250U/L vs. >=445U/L] Hazard ratio: 0.070 (0.010-0.560) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 4.410 (1.380-14.140) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [4×10^9–10×10^9/L vs. >10×10^9/L] Hazard ratio: 0.560 (0.320-0.950) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [<4×10^9/L vs. >10×10^9/L] Hazard ratio: 0.700 (0.270-1.850) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Oxygen Saturation (SaO2) [>=93% vs. <93%] Hazard ratio: 0.320 (0.180-0.550) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Hazard ratio: 1.960 (1.180-3.250) § Wang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Ischaemic heart disease and heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.530 (0.180-1.400) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.100 (0.900-4.800) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.500 (0.710-3.000) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.000 (1.000-4.000) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [10 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.850-1.300) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.290 (0.100-0.750) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.000 (1.000-3.900) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [10 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.820-1.200) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.200 (1.000-4.900) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.280 (0.090-0.730) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.800 (0.950-3.400) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [10 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.100 (0.940-1.300) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.340 (0.110-0.860) § Bean
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>35kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Odds ratio: 3.600 (2.500-5.300) Lighter
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-35kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Odds ratio: 1.800 (1.200-2.700) Lighter
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>35kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Odds ratio: 1.500 (0.900-2.300) Lighter
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-35kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Odds ratio: 1.100 (0.800-1.700) Lighter
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.460 (0.480-4.430) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.570 (0.160-2.040) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Fibrinogen [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.061 (0.599-1.877) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.007 (0.990-1.024) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.996 (0.990-1.006) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD8 [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.002 (0.998-1.006) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CD4 [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.996 (0.992-1.000) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings NLR [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.104 (0.724-1.684) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.991 (0.970-1.013) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Albumin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.850 (0.700-1.020) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte ratio [1% decrease vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.920-1.170) § Wei
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