COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.970-1.040) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.060 (1.030-1.100) § Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>=65 years vs. <65 years] Odds ratio: 16.320 (4.590-58.010) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.500 (1.200-5.200) § Ji
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.110 (1.010-1.220) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.150 (0.030-0.780) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.090 (0.020-1.160) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.200 (1.050-1.380) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (1.000-1.020) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.200 (0.030-1.220) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.040 (0.900-1.190) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.230 (1.000-1.510) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.160 (0.040-0.760) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (1.020-1.190) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.250 (1.100-1.420) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.000 (0.970-1.030) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Urea [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.040 (0.940-1.160) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.370 (1.190-1.590) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Hs-TnI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.030 (0.570-1.860) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CK-MB [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.120 (0.910-1.390) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Myoglobin (MYO) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.006 (1.003-1.008) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.360 (1.180-1.570) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.220 (0.420-3.520) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.610 (0.590-4.410) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.340 (1.190-1.520) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [10 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.180 (0.720-1.920) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Hazard ratio: 1.080 (0.330-3.520) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.320 (1.120-1.560) § Gao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.370 (1.220-1.540) Gao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 9.800 (2.800-33.800) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 3.700 (1.800-7.800) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>60 years vs. <=60 years] Hazard ratio: 3.000 (1.400-6.000) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.900 (1.900-7.900) § Ji
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.000 (0.500-2.100) § Ji
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present at admission vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.680 (0.340-8.160) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.590 (0.100-3.630) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.002 (1.000-1.004) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.560 (0.420-5.830) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatine kinase [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (1.009-1.020) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 3.260 (0.990-10.720) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.660 (0.220-1.960) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. <75 years] Hazard ratio: 6.070 (1.650-22.350) § Feng
COVID-19 (death) Complications Bacterial infection [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.520 (0.710-3.240) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac insufficiency [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.110 (0.590-2.060) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute respiratory distress syndrome [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 29.330 (12.370-69.580) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney injury [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.160 (0.560-2.410) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Complications Arrhythmia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.750 (0.370-1.530) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (0.980-1.050) § Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum creatinine [1 unit increase vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.990-1.010) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [1 unit increase vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.240 (0.620-16.980) § Chen
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