COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Body temperature [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.550 (1.320-5.210) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Heart rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.950 (0.920-0.990) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Respiration rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.290 (1.070-1.590) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Diastolic blood pressure [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (1.000-1.090) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Sore throat [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.530 (0.220-1.250) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.290 (0.100-0.720) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.690 (1.080-6.890) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Findings CXR/CT suggestive of pneumonia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.860 (1.090-7.690) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.390 (0.260-0.540) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Eosinophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.890 (0.830-0.940) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.910-1.000) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.510 (0.970-13.890) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Body temperature [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.430 (1.250-5.020) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Heart rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.920-0.990) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Respiration rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.300 (1.070-1.600) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Diastolic blood pressure [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.050 (1.000-1.100) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Sore throat [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.630 (0.340-1.140) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.300 (0.110-0.790) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.310 (0.920-5.930) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.380 (0.250-0.530) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Eosinophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.840-0.960) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.920-1.000) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.020-1.050) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Body temperature [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 2.270 (1.500-3.440) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Heart rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.950-0.990) § Sun
SARS COV-2 infection Vital Signs Diastolic blood pressure [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.000-1.060) § Sun
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.890 (1.640-9.220) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.930 (1.730-4.960) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.510 (0.930-6.780) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.290 (1.000-5.230) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.670 (0.300-1.490) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.970 (2.490-14.290) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.470 (1.670-3.660) Wang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.290 (1.690-3.100) Wang
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Intervention Invasive mechanical ventilation [Used vs. Not used] Odds ratio: 9.880 (1.110-88.020) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Status Severe illness [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.100 (0.030-5.220) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Status Time from symptom onset to hospital admission [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.300 (1.100-1.540) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.380 (0.520-3.650) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.940 (0.860-18.150) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.240 (1.310-8.020) § Xu
Prolonged duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.960-1.030) § Xu
Clinical resolution of symptoms Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.860 (0.400-1.830) Zha
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.770 (0.330-1.780) Zha
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.260 (0.580-2.740) Zha
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Cardiac troponin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.080 (1.170-14.250) § Du
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 3 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.720 (2.550-8.750) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 3 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 9.810 (5.460-17.650) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 2 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.530 (1.500-8.270) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 2 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 6.240 (2.730-14.270) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 1 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.900 (0.760-4.750) § Cheng
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