COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (death) Complications Acute kidney Injury [Stage 1 vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.510 (1.530-8.020) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum creatinine [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.040 (1.320-3.150) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 3.090 (1.950-4.870) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Blood urea nitrogen [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 7.150 (4.920-10.390) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum creatinine [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.990 (2.000-4.470) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Serum creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 5.880 (3.900-8.870) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Haematuria Negative 2+^3+ [2+^3+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 12.200 (6.320-23.530) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Blood urea nitrogen [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 4.200 (2.740-6.450) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Hematuria Negative 1+ [1+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 4.640 (2.240-9.620) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Haematuria Negative 2+^3+ [2+^3+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 8.890 (4.410-17.940) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Proteinuria Negative 2+^3+ [2+^3+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 10.920 (5.000-23.860) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Hematuria Negative 1+ [1+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 3.050 (1.430-6.490) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Proteinuria negative 1+ [1+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 4.120 (1.970-8.620) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Proteinuria Negative 2+^3+ [2+^3+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 6.800 (2.970-15.560) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.020 (0.700-1.480) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Proteinuria negative 1+ [1+ vs. Negative] Hazard ratio: 2.470 (1.150-5.330) § Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.060 (0.730-1.540) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Status Disease severity [Severe disease vs. Non-severe disease] Hazard ratio: 6.100 (3.860-9.640) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 2.150 (1.450-3.210) Cheng
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Hazard ratio: 2.430 (1.660-3.560) Cheng
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Appearance of ground-glass or consolidation vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 6.280 (3.900-10.100) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.000-1.050) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.260 (0.090-0.700) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Nausea and vomiting [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 15.550 (2.860-84.200) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Shortness of breath [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 9.020 (2.200-37.010) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Muscle ache [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.670 (1.750-12.460) § Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CD3+CD8+ T cells [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.980 (1.130-14.010) § Du
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.460 (0.760-8.040) § Du
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=65 years vs. < 65 years] Odds ratio: 3.770 (1.150-17.390) § Du
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Irregular right middle lobe vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.570 (0.950-13.440) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Irregular right upper lobe vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 5.600 (1.200-26.280) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Abnormal Bronchial wall thickening vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 32.590 (7.880-134.880) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Abnormal Linear opacities vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 10.020 (2.160-46.450) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Abnormal Crazy-paving pattern vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.340 (1.260-8.880) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [High Consolidated tissue vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 6.390 (1.720-23.720) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [CT score >7 vs. CT score <=7] Odds ratio: 19.200 (5.820-63.340) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Oxyhemoglobin saturation [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 8.330 (2.480-27.930) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 7.990 (2.430-26.310) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 13.200 (2.850-61.240) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count decreased [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 12.000 (3.210-44.820) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Monocyte ratio decreased [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 18.000 (2.040-159.190) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte ratio [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 7.600 (2.480-23.280) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Neutrophil ratio increased [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 9.680 (3.280-28.580) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.880 (1.510-15.790) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Cough [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 9.950 (1.250-79.550) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Chest pain [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.860 (1.150-102.770) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.900 (2.070-57.200) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.610 (2.930-38.400) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>50 years vs. <=50 years] Odds ratio: 7.600 (2.660-21.660) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 0.670 (0.020-1.320) Xu
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