COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatine kinase [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 23.550 (17.080-30.020) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Standardized mean difference: 2.000 (1.200-2.800) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 0.160 (0.040-0.280) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Standardized mean difference: 2.110 (0.710-3.510) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 8.320 (1.630-18.280) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 3.930 (2.010-5.860) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings AST [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 20.600 (6.810-34.400) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ALT [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 16.970 (2.180-31.760) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 2.920 (1.330-7.170) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 1.760 (0.310-3.220) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.830 (2.820-27.670) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [Fever present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.110 (1.110-4.020) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Respiratory rate [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 5.290 (2.560-8.010) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.560 (1.330-9.540) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.760 (1.390-5.450) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.310 (1.680-3.180) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.040 (2.010-4.600) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.400 (0.650-3.010) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase in BMI vs. Not applicable] Weighted Mean Difference: 3.380 (0.070-6.690) Xu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Glucose [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.420 (1.430-4.100) § Jin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 24.770 (4.600-133.330) § Jin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Symptoms [From infected area vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.090 (0.020-0.540) § Jin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 11.400 (1.890-68.730) § Jin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ALT [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.030 (0.970-1.100) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings NLR [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.490 (1.010-2.190) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings NLR [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.840 (1.140-2.980) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ALT [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.040 (0.990-1.080) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings ALT [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.050 (1.020-1.090) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.090 (1.020-1.160) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.070 (1.020-1.130) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.110 (1.060-1.160) § Zhang
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.160 (1.030-1.310) § Liu
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.033 (1.029-1.037) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.030 (1.090-8.470) Henry
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CK-MB [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.070 (1.010-1.140) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.200 (1.750-5.880) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Non-invasive ventilator (face mask) [Used vs. Not used] Odds ratio: 3.970 (1.580-9.930) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.090 (0.020-0.290) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Status Time from onset to treatment [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 26.980 (1.810-402.930) § Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Status Time from onset to treatment [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 11.630 (4.510-30.030) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 47.770 (13.680-166.770) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 54.740 (1.140-999.990) § Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Location [Agglomerative epidemic vs. None] Odds ratio: 0.390 (0.240-0.650) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase in BMI vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.300 (1.090-1.540) Wu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.420 (1.880-6.220) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.460 (1.760-3.440) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.070 (0.890-4.820) Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.360 (1.430-3.830) Yang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.420 (1.510-3.900) Lippi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.490 (1.980-3.120) Lippi
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