COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with dexamethasone vs. Usual care] Risk ratio: 0.830 (0.740-0.920) § Horby
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 2.300 (1.000-5.290) Ye
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.410 (0.200-0.830) Ye
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Symptomatic SARS COV-2 infection [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.212 (0.522-2.815) Yin
SARS COV-2 infection Symptoms Symptomatic SARS COV-2 infection [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.568 (0.679-3.620) Yin
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.920 (0.770-1.110) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=75 years vs. 19-44 years] Hazard ratio: 7.690 (4.600-12.840) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [65-74 years vs. 19-44 years] Hazard ratio: 4.830 (2.930-7.960) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [55-64 years vs. 19-44 years] Hazard ratio: 3.180 (1.930-5.210) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [45-54 years vs. 19-44 years] Hazard ratio: 1.950 (1.160-3.310) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphopenia at hospital admission [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.990 (1.310-6.820) Zhao
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 22.400 (2.860-175.700) § Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Immunocompromised [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.690 (1.210-2.340) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Autoimmune diseases [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.230 (1.120-1.350) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Spleen diseases [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.410 (0.930-2.120) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Organ transplantation [Yes vs. No] Hazard ratio: 4.270 (3.200-5.700) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.720 (1.620-1.830) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities other neurological diseases [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.460 (2.190-2.760) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Stroke/dementia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.790 (1.670-1.930) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Liver disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.610 (1.330-1.950) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Haematological malignancy [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.880 (1.550-2.290) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Haematological malignancy [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.120 (2.500-3.890) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Haematological malignancy [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.520 (2.410-5.140) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Non-hematologic Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.970 (0.880-1.060) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Non-hematologic Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.190 (1.040-1.350) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Non-hematologic Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.560 (1.290-1.890) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.870 (1.630-2.160) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.360 (2.180-2.560) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.500 (1.400-1.600) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Chronic heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.270 (1.200-1.350) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Asthma [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.250 (1.080-1.440) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Asthma [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.110 (1.020-1.200) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Respiratory disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.780 (1.670-1.900) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.950 (0.890-1.010) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Other Economic regions [IMD 5th quintile vs. IMD 1st quintile] Hazard ratio: 1.750 (1.600-1.910) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Other Economic regions [IMD 4th quintile vs. IMD 1st quintile] Hazard ratio: 1.490 (1.370-1.630) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Other Economic regions [IMD 3rd quintile vs. IMD 1st quintile] Hazard ratio: 1.230 (1.130-1.350) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Other Economic regions [IMD 2nd quintile vs. IMD 1st quintile] Hazard ratio: 1.130 (1.040-1.240) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Other vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.330 (1.030-1.730) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Black vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.710 (1.440-2.020) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Asian vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.620 (1.430-1.820) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. White] Hazard ratio: 1.640 (1.190-2.260) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. No history of smoking] Hazard ratio: 0.880 (0.790-0.990) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Hazard ratio: 1.250 (1.180-1.330) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>40kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Hazard ratio: 2.270 (1.990-2.580) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (35-40kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Hazard ratio: 1.560 (1.410-1.730) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-35kg/m2) vs. Non-obese (BMI<30)] Hazard ratio: 1.270 (1.180-1.360) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 1.990 (1.880-2.100) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=80 years vs. 50-59 years] Hazard ratio: 12.640 (11.190-14.280) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [70-79 years vs. 50-59 years] Hazard ratio: 4.770 (4.230-5.380) § The OpenSAFELY Collaborative
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