COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (any condition) Other Wearing face mask [Yes vs. No] Relative risk: 0.019 (0.003-0.135) Chu
COVID-19 (any condition) Other Proximity with infection [Further distance vs. Shorter distance] Relative risk: 0.150 (0.030-0.730) Chu
Hospital discharge Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.140 (0.030-0.600) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [>4 Lung severity score vs. <=4 Lung severity score] Hazard ratio: 0.410 (0.180-0.920) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Bilateral abnormalities vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.760 (0.290-1.980) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [>2 lung lobes affected vs. <2 lung lobes affected] Hazard ratio: 0.920 (0.240-3.530) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Ground-glass opacities, consolidation and linear opacity vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.440 (0.540-10.980) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Consolidation and linear opacity vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.290 (0.030-2.760) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Ground-glass opacities and linear opacities vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.600 (0.110-22.860) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Consolidation on chest CT vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 0.710 (0.140-3.550) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Ground-glass opacities and consolidation vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.020 (0.260-3.960) § Liu
Hospital discharge Findings Radiological finding on admission [Ground-glass opacities vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.320 (0.340-5.140) § Liu
Hospital discharge Status Time from symptom onset to CT examination [>3 days vs. <= 3 days] Hazard ratio: 0.940 (0.360-2.460) § Liu
Hospital discharge Patient characteristics Age [>65 years vs. <=65 years] Hazard ratio: 0.440 (0.070-2.730) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [>39 vs. <38] Odds ratio: 1.060 (0.780-1.400) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [38-39 vs. <38] Odds ratio: 1.080 (0.850-1.400) § Petrilli
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings IL-10 [Above median vs. Below median] Hazard ratio: 0.973 (0.436-2.169) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings IL-6 [Above median vs. Below median] Hazard ratio: 0.859 (0.394-1.874) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Eosinophil count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.653 (0.300-1.422) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings CD8+ T cell [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.376 (0.812-6.953) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings CD4+ T cell [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.036 (0.459-2.341) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings CD3+ T cell [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.656 (0.248-1.736) § Lin
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.986 (0.409-2.377) § Lin
Virus clearance Status Disease severity [Severe vs. None] Hazard ratio: 0.521 (0.232-1.172) § Lin
Virus clearance Patient characteristics Age [>47 years vs. <=47 years] Hazard ratio: 0.905 (0.495-1.653) § Lin
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.300 (0.950-1.800) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Chronic kidney disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.730 (0.550-1.000) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Asthma or COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.760-1.300) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.230 (0.990-1.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.750-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hyperlipidaemia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.930 (0.750-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Heart failure [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.930 (1.400-2.600) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Coronary artery disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.920 (0.710-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.012 (0.987-1.037) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.188 (0.182-7.765) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.099 (0.264-4.580) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 7.224 (1.298-40.190) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.111 (1.042-1.184) § Wang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 3.010 (1.510-5.990) Pranata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 2.110 (1.340-3.330) Pranata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Risk ratio: 1.640 (1.110-2.430) Pranata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Unknown vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.050 (0.540-2.000) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>40kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.710 (1.100-2.700) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-39kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.110 (0.850-1.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 0.940 (0.730-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Unknown vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 1.420 (1.080-1.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 0.820 (0.530-1.300) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [History of smoking vs. No history of smoking] Odds ratio: 1.050 (0.820-1.300) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Unknown vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.100 (0.680-1.800) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Ethnicity [Mixed vs. Non-Hispanic White] Odds ratio: 1.240 (0.860-1.800) § Petrilli
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