COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit decrease vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.380 (0.190-10.160) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Fingertip oxygen saturation [1% decrease vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.550 (0.390-0.760) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Shortness of breath [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.040 (0.600-6.910) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.730 (0.060-8.340) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.770 (0.760-10.060) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.000 (0.960-1.050) § Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 0.100 (0.020-0.480) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [1 unit increase vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.090 (0.760-1.580) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.380 (1.080-1.770) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Anorexia/lethargy [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.590 (0.710-9.450) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Fatigue [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.740 (0.980-14.300) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.480 (0.390-5.550) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.590 (1.010-12.800) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.830 (0.520-6.410) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding on admission [Consolidation on chest CT vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 12.200 (2.230-66.590) Tabata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Radiological finding during hospitalization [Consolidation on chest CT vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.270 (1.150-9.300) Tabata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 7.250 (1.430-36.700) Tabata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphopenia during hospitalization [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.400 (1.570-12.320) Tabata
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphopenia at hospital admission [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.000 (1.100-22.920) Tabata
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Umifenovir received vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.540 (0.340-0.840) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Lopinavir–Ritonavir vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.430 (0.210-0.890) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [High dose corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 3.500 (1.790-6.860) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Low dose corticosteroid vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.260 (0.610-2.580) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Complications Hyperglycemia [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.770 (1.110-2.840) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac injury [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.920 (1.800-4.760) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 2.000 (1.210-3.300) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Leukocyte [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 2.040 (1.260-3.310) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [>=65 years vs. <65 years] Hazard ratio: 1.720 (1.090-2.730) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 1.720 (1.050-2.820) § Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Cholestatic vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.450 (1.250-9.500) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Hepatocellular vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.830 (1.450-10.110) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Mixed vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 11.220 (4.420-28.450) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Cholestatic vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.090 (0.340-3.490) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Hepatocellular vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 3.190 (1.150-8.840) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Injury vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 9.040 (3.190-25.600) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test during hospitalization [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.480 (0.940-6.550) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Cholestatic vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.750 (0.840-3.640) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Hepatocellular vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.640 (0.860-3.120) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Mixed vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.440 (1.930-10.230) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Cholestatic vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.280 (0.580-2.820) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Hepatocellular vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.730 (1.190-6.300) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Injury vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.030 (0.690-5.980) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Liver test at hospital admission [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.640 (0.910-2.950) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Severe obesity (>35kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 7.360 (1.630-33.140) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Obesity (30-35kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 3.450 (0.830-14.310) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 1.690 (0.520-5.480) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications Dyslipidemia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.680 (0.240-1.970) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.290 (0.890-5.840) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.600 (0.440-5.830) § Simonnet
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.830 (1.020-7.850) § Simonnet
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