COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.950 (0.630-5.990) Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.590 (0.610-10.980) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 4.280 (0.860-21.210) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.020 (0.960-1.080) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings HS-cTnI [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 10.900 (1.280-92.930) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (1.030-1.180) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.001 (0.999-999.990) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 0.700 (0.550-0.910) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.010 (0.940-1.090) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 5.930 (2.300-15.290) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings WBC [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 10.850 (3.040-38.750) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Hs-TnI [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.390 (1.260-15.270) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.110 (1.160-8.370) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Status Diagnosis at critical status [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 7.390 (2.060-26.570) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hypnotics vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.080 (0.030-0.270) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.460 (1.180-10.170) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>=65 years vs. < 65 years] Odds ratio: 3.550 (1.630-7.730) § Hu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Cardiac troponin [1 unit increase vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 26.910 (4.090-177.230) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Coronary heart disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 16.610 (2.290-120.580) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Complications Cardiac injury [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.550 (0.750-3.190) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.240 (1.120-4.500) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.380 (0.650-2.930) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.860 (1.060-3.260) § Wang
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Dyspnea [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.350 (1.430-3.870) Wang
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Hand hygiene [Suboptimal hand hygiene after contact with patients vs. No] Relative risk: 2.430 (1.340-4.390) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Hand hygiene [Suboptimal hand hygiene before contact patients vs. No] Relative risk: 3.100 (1.430-6.730) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Unqualified hand-washing [Unqualified hand-washing vs. No] Risk ratio: 2.640 (1.040-6.710) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Medical operation and protection [Performed sputum suction vs. Did not perform sputum suction] Relative risk: 0.430 (0.120-1.550) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Medical operation and protection [High exposure operation vs. Not high exposure operation] Relative risk: 0.540 (0.190-1.530) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [With contact to Huanan seafood market vs. Without contact to Huanan seafood market] Relative risk: 0.630 (0.060-7.080) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [With contact to suspected patient vs. Without contact to suspected patient] Relative risk: 0.490 (0.270-0.890) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [With contact to diagnosed patient vs. Without contact to diagnosed patient] Relative risk: 0.360 (0.220-0.590) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [With suspected family member vs. Without suspected family member] Relative risk: 1.300 (0.310-5.350) Ran
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [With diagnosed family member vs. Without diagnosed family member] Relative risk: 2.760 (2.020-3.770) Ran
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 9.330 (0.960-90.630) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.980-1.040) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.020 (0.990-1.030) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 4.820 (1.160-16.960) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings AST [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.040 (0.560-7.380) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Status Time from symptom onset to hospital admission [1 day increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.660 (0.470-0.910) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Shortness of breath [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 12.900 (1.800-94.400) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 16.100 (1.900-133.800) § Chen
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 13.800 (1.410-136.100) § Chen
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities No. of comorbidities [With 2 or more comorbidities vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.590 (1.610-4.170) § Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities No. of comorbidities [With one comorbidity vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.790 (1.160-2.770) § Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Cancer [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 3.500 (1.600-7.640) § Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.580 (1.070-2.320) § Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.590 (1.030-2.450) § Guan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.680 (1.420-5.050) § Guan
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 3.670 (1.030-14.120) § Sun
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