COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-04 16:24:58 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
SARS COV-2 infection Other Symptoms of infected persons in households [No fever vs. Fever] Odds ratio: 0.610 (0.300-1.240) § Li
SARS COV-2 infection Other Gender of in the infected person in households [Female vs. Male] Odds ratio: 0.790 (0.420-1.470) § Li
SARS COV-2 infection Other Relationship with infected persons [Spouse vs. No spouse] Odds ratio: 2.270 (1.220-4.220) § Li
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Age [<18 years vs. >=18 years] Odds ratio: 0.180 (0.060-0.540) § Li
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.920 (0.510-1.640) § Li
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Inflammatory bowel disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.950 (0.840-1.060) Taxonera
SARS COV-2 infection Comorbidities Inflammatory bowel disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.740 (0.700-0.770) Taxonera
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Status Time from symptom onset to hospital admission [>=4 days vs. <4 days] Risk ratio: 0.350 (0.190-0.670) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings eGFR [Abnormal vs. Normal] Risk ratio: 1.630 (0.670-4.000) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Homocysteine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Risk ratio: 3.170 (1.010-9.960) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum cystatin C [Abnormal vs. Normal] Risk ratio: 0.790 (0.280-2.200) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Monocyte–Lymphocyte ratio [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Risk ratio: 7.690 (1.670-35.550) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Thymosin therapy vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 2.320 (0.940-5.730) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with Gamma globulin therapy vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 1.080 (0.380-3.080) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [>=60 years vs. <60 years] Risk ratio: 2.280 (1.120-4.340) § Yang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Findings Radiological finding on admission [1% increase of pulmonary lesion ratio vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.100 (1.070-1.150) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Hs-TnI [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 6.630 (2.240-19.650) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) [Abnormal at admission vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.800 (1.740-4.520) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings eGFR [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.950-0.990) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.020 (1.010-1.040) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings WBC [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.070 (0.930-1.240) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with calcium channel blocker vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 4.280 (1.190-15.360) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 2.820 (0.450-17.720) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.280 (0.740-14.610) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Cerebrovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 10.160 (1.140-90.600) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Diabetes [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.760 (0.880-8.690) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 5.360 (1.910-15.040) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.470 (0.300-1.540) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.070 (1.040-1.100) Wei
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Complications Coagulopathy [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 4.100 (1.900-9.100) § Klok
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.050 (1.004-1.100) § Klok
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 2.360 (1.310-4.280) § Yang
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 3.070 (0.590-15.980) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 17.020 (2.250-128.590) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Platelet count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.230 (1.010-4.920) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 1.100 (0.500-2.410) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Neutrophils [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 4.290 (1.740-10.580) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings WBC [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.560 (1.170-5.630) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 47.410 (6.290-357.480) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.930 (0.910-0.950) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Any comorbidity [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 2.650 (1.070-6.550) § Xie
COVID-19 (death) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Hazard ratio: 1.190 (0.610-2.330) § Xie
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with aspirin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.510 (0.120-2.130) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with Statins vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.320-2.990) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with insulin vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 2.960 (0.810-10.770) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with DPP.4 inhibitor vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.200 (0.020-1.980) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with thiazolidinediones vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.520 (0.340-59.540) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with insulin secretagogues vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.140 (0.270-4.700) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with biguanides vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.720 (0.230-2.250) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with biguanides vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.720 (0.230-2.250) § Yan
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