COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Diastolic blood pressure [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.930-0.990) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Systolic blood pressure [1 unit increase (at admission) vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.970 (0.950-0.990) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms [Present at admission vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.610 (0.880-2.930) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Cough [Present at admission vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.340 (1.410-3.890) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [Present at admission vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.740 (0.960-3.150) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.160 (1.090-1.230) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.050 (1.030-1.060) § Yan
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 2.320 (1.540-3.500) § Yan
COVID-19 (death) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 4.000 (0.800-20.012) § Yao
COVID-19 (death) Complications Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [1 unit increase vs. SOFA score: 0] Odds ratio: 2.402 (1.313-4.395) § Yao
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 9.017 (2.808-28.957) § Yao
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Complications Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score [1 unit increase vs. SOFA score: 0] Odds ratio: 2.450 (1.302-4.608) § Yao
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.980 (1.290-3.050) Zhao
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities COPD [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.380 (2.340-8.200) Zhao
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Diarrhoea [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 8.620 (0.970-76.780) § Leung
COVID-19 (death) Symptoms Body temperature [Fever present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.230 (0.080-0.640) § Leung
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.040 (1.000-1.100) § Leung
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Findings Lung CT- Chest fat [Adipose tissue area at T7-T8 level vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.600 (1.200-5.800) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Findings Lung CT- Volume - VOL-WAL [Non-aerated vs. Well aerated] Odds ratio: 2.600 (1.300-5.200) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.200 (1.100-4.400) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings LDH [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.300 (1.100-4.600) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Platelet count [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 2.200 (1.100-4.500) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Comorbidities Cardiovascular disease [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 3.500 (1.700-7.100) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Patient characteristics Age [>=65 years vs. <65] Odds ratio: 3.100 (1.500-6.400) § Colombi
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Overweight/obesity [Overweight (25-29kg/m2) vs. Normal (<25 kg/m2)] Odds ratio: 6.320 (1.160-34.540) § Zheng
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [Shared a meal vs. No] Odds ratio: 7.130 (0.730-69.320) § Bi
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [Travelling with a case vs. No] Odds ratio: 7.060 (1.430-34.910) § Bi
SARS COV-2 infection Patient characteristics Contact history [Sharing household vs. Non sharing household] Odds ratio: 6.270 (1.490-26.330) § Bi
Virus clearance Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.950 (1.270-2.980) § Cai
Virus clearance Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.770 (0.660-0.890) § Cai
Virus clearance Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase in BMI vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 0.750 (0.630-0.890) § Cai
Virus clearance Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Hazard ratio: 0.960 (0.920-0.990) § Cai
Virus clearance Status Clinical classification [Non Severe vs. Severe] Hazard ratio: 8.410 (2.400-29.460) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Image changes of Lung CT [Severe vs. No change] Odds ratio: 2.370 (0.390-14.270) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Findings Image changes of Lung CT [Moderate vs. No change] Odds ratio: 0.770 (0.180-3.360) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.000-1.050) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.990-1.030) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocytes [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 0.530 (0.210-1.370) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase in BMI vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.170 (1.030-1.340) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.460 (0.510-4.160) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Symptoms Body temperature [Fever present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 2.150 (0.610-7.570) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Contact history [Patients not been to Hubei vs. Patients from Hubei] Odds ratio: 0.900 (0.380-2.140) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 1.520 (0.640-3.620) § Cai
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.080 (1.040-1.120) § Cai
COVID-19 (unimprovement) Laboratory Findings Albumin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Odds ratio: 1.929 (1.199-3.104) § Zhang
COVID-19 (unimprovement) Symptoms Muscle ache [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.309 (0.153-0.626) § Zhang
COVID-19 (unimprovement) Symptoms Sputum production [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.796 (1.062-3.036) § Zhang
COVID-19 (unimprovement) Status Severe illness [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 0.129 (0.082-0.201) § Zhang
COVID-19 (unimprovement) Patient characteristics Gender [Male vs. Female] Odds ratio: 0.490 (0.310-0.760) § Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.870 (0.840-9.830) § Chen
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