COVID-19 Risk Factors
literature database & meta-analysis

Last update : 2020-08-06 21:54:31 (GMT+2)   |  276 factors investigated   |  1766 estimates included  |  219 articles processed  |  QC progress: 51%

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Green: significant protective factor
Red: significant risk factor
§ adjusted estimate (see article details)
estimated using data reported in the article
Outcome Risk category Risk [exposed vs. unexposed] Risk estimate (95% CI) Author [URL] View QC
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum ferritin [>500-1000 vs. 0-300] Odds ratio: 1.130 (0.830-1.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Serum ferritin [>300-500 vs. 0-300] Odds ratio: 0.960 (0.670-1.400) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [missing vs. 0-250] Odds ratio: 0.750 (0.480-1.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [>2500 vs. 0-250] Odds ratio: 3.930 (2.600-6.000) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [>1000-2500 vs. 0-250] Odds ratio: 2.370 (1.580-3.600) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [>250-500 vs. 0-250] Odds ratio: 2.260 (1.660-3.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.090 (1.040-1.147) § Zhu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.030 (1.005-1.055) § Zhu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Comorbidities Hypertension [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 4.380 (1.012-18.993) § Zhu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.870-1.090) Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.660 (0.380-1.120) § Zhang
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.730 (0.500-1.070) Zhang
COVID-19 (infection) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ARBs vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 1.010 (0.950-1.070) Zhang
COVID-19 (infection) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.980 (0.920-1.040) Zhang
COVID-19 (infection) Treatment Concomitant medication [Treated with ACEi/ARB vs. Not received] Odds ratio: 0.990 (0.950-1.040) Zhang
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings D-dimer [>250-500 vs. 0-250] Odds ratio: 1.580 (1.210-2.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [missing vs. 0-15] Odds ratio: 2.590 (1.100-6.100) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [>200 vs. 0-15] Odds ratio: 5.090 (2.820-9.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [>100-200 vs. 0-15] Odds ratio: 3.860 (2.230-6.700) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [>15-100 vs. 0-15] Odds ratio: 2.350 (1.370-4.000) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Procalcitonin [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 4.908 (1.797-13.402) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings CRP [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 4.394 (1.924-10.033) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Hazard ratio: 1.042 (1.015-1.070) § Liu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings IL-6 [Abnormal vs. Normal] Hazard ratio: 2.375 (1.058-5.329) § Liu
Coronaviruses (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for coronavirus infection [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 1.330 (0.730-2.420) § Li
Coronaviruses (death) Treatment Treatment for coronavirus infection [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 1.070 (0.810-1.420) Li
Virus clearance Treatment Treatment for coronaviruses [Treated with corticosteroid vs. Not received] Mean Difference: 3.780 (1.160-6.410) Li
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [missing vs. 0-1.1] Odds ratio: 1.470 (0.330-6.700) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [>2 vs. 0-1.1] Odds ratio: 1.660 (1.110-2.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Creatinine [>1.1-2 vs. 0-1.1] Odds ratio: 1.520 (1.200-1.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Smoking [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 16.130 (1.275-204.160) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.285 (1.045-1.581) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/fatal) Laboratory Findings LDH [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.010 (1.001-1.019) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Systolic blood pressure [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.046 (1.006-1.089) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics BMI [1 unit increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.327 (1.038-1.697) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.078 (1.020-1.140) § Yu
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [missing vs. >1.2] Odds ratio: 4.760 (1.020-22.200) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [<0.5 vs. >1.2] Odds ratio: 1.760 (1.260-2.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [0.5-0.8 vs. >1.2] Odds ratio: 1.190 (0.930-1.500) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Laboratory Findings Lymphocyte count [0.8-1.2 vs. >1.2] Odds ratio: 1.090 (0.820-1.400) § Petrilli
Hospital discharge Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 1.000 (0.900-1.200) § Mahévas
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Risk ratio: 1.100 (0.900-1.300) § Mahévas
COVID-19 (survival) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.200 (0.700-2.200) § Mahévas
COVID-19 (death) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 1.200 (0.500-3.000) § Mahévas
COVID-19 (survival) Treatment Treatment for COVID-19 [Treated with hydroxychloroquine vs. Not received] Hazard ratio: 0.800 (0.400-1.500) § Mahévas
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [<88 vs. >92] Odds ratio: 3.670 (2.780-4.800) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (severe/critical) Vital Signs Oxygen saturation [88-92 vs. >92] Odds ratio: 1.490 (1.180-1.900) § Petrilli
COVID-19 (death) Complications Dementia [Present vs. Not present] Odds ratio: 1.840 (1.080-3.130) § Bianchetti
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Gender [Female vs. Male] Odds ratio: 0.870 (0.600-1.270) § Bianchetti
COVID-19 (death) Patient characteristics Age [1 year increase vs. Not applicable] Odds ratio: 1.090 (1.070-1.120) § Bianchetti
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